The battles that lie forward

At the tail finish of final month, there was a gathering between senior civil servants and union officers, who had simply triggered a overview of the present public pay deal. It adopted a slightly extra star-studded occasion in the midst of April, a gathering of the Labour Employer Economic Forum (LEEF – the State’s clearing home for industrial relations and bargaining points). That was attended by the Taoiseach Micheál Martin, Tánaiste Leo Varadkar, Green Party chief Eamon Ryan and each monetary Ministers – Michael McGrath and Paschal Donohoe.

At the second assembly, there have been displays on the state of the economic system, the general public funds, inflation and vitality prices. The subject material was extra prosaic, however that belies the significance of the talks.

It’s a part of the conventional engagement within the run-in to pay negotiations, and one senior political supply guarantees that every one the same old furnishings related to pay talks can be current once they kick off correctly: “Needless to say there won’t be enough money for everything, so there will be compromises and trade-offs, ballots and 2am agreements.”

But there are new elements with which to contend. The talks are going down towards a febrile and shifting backdrop, the place contributors are grappling with quite a few novel elements. The political stakes are excessive. The Coalition should hold the commercial peace, keep away from breaking the financial institution, or triggering extra inflationary pressures and should be conscious that any deal struck will de facto set the benchmark for the remainder of the economic system. Public sector unions should ship for members who’re feeling the pinch.

A senior Government supply says engagement between unions and officers is ready to “intensify” subsequent week: so, what battles lie forward?


The present pay settlement, Building Momentum, was minted in December 2020, as Covid started to roar again. It was struck in a type of suspended animation, insulated from the conventional forces that influence on public pay. There was no vaccine safety; the exchequer was borrowing massively to fund programmes that had been backstopping a lot of the non-public sector’s wage invoice; and Covid had ensured a broad industrial peace, at the same time as staff had been requested to do extra in extraordinary circumstances. Unemployment was decrease than throughout the heights of the primary wave, however was nonetheless greater than 6 per cent, and was about to take off like a rocket because the economic system was shuttered once more.

Comparatively quick, it lined simply two years, and stipulated a 1 per cent pay rise every October, in addition to a 1 per cent pot for sectoral bargaining. In the conventional run of issues, it will be falling due for negotiation now anyway.

But the context has modified. While Covid might have light away, it has left a depraved cocktail of issues because the legacy of large financial intervention blended with provide chain backlogs to stoke inflationary strain, which was in flip turbocharged by the warfare in Ukraine.

The web end result for staff is that the incremental features granted below the present deal are being left within the mud, says Kevin Callinan, basic secretary of Fórsa, the biggest public service union. The annualised worth of every wage enhance is 0.25 per cent, however projections for inflation vary from 6.25 per cent up. “That’s the scale of the gap if you look at it from what’s in the pay agreement and the cost of living,” he says.

That is, in all probability, a spot that can’t be met by an strange public pay settlement. For one factor, the officers within the pay and pensions division of the Department of Public Expenditure and Reform would wish the smelling salts: such is their parsimony, one insider quipped this week, they might have gotten rid of Ministers and their wages ages in the past if that they had their method, leaving essential choices as much as the knowledge of the Civil Service.

There are, in equity, real considerations about sparking a wage-price spiral by chasing inflated costs with wage will increase. The unions imagine the Government facet has acknowledged two essential issues: first, that the backdrop has essentially shifted. Secondly, they imagine Michael McGrath, an important political actor on this drama, needs visibility on the general public pay invoice for 2023 nicely upfront of this 12 months’s funds. That places a slightly tight timeline on issues – balloting public sector unions, particularly academics, could be a time-consuming course of over the summer time.

Callinan says the unions haven’t demanded that wage hikes hold tempo with the price of inflation. “We haven’t. The way we’ve tried to describe this is the value of the deal versus the reality of the cost of living.”

However, the choice he’s aiming for is bolder and extra bold than any plan seen for years.


It was lined off in a couple of strains, buried within the final paragraph of a press launch following the talks on April thirteenth. Given the “serious nature of the economic risks facing Ireland”, it was agreed that LEEF members “would enter a process of dialogue over the next few weeks to explore the potential for developing an agreed approach” to the “challenges and pressures in a strategic and sustainable way”.

For Callinan – and others – the language underplays an opportunity to deal with the heady cocktail of forces surrounding pay talks in a extra basic method. The pressures are such {that a} broader strategy to public pay talks – as a part of a wider framework – is now warranted, he says.

“I think there needs to be a combination of measures to address the cost of living crisis which will involve negotiated collectively bargained pay increases,” he says. “There is an opening now to do that in a tripartite way with Government, employers and unions working together for meaningful progress around things like childcare, rent, housing, access to healthcare” in addition to shifting the minimal wage and addressing “how collective bargaining works across the economy”.

Nobody concerned within the course of would ever utter the phrases “social partnership”, but it surely has some echoes of the Bertie Ahern period bargaining bonanza.

Callinan calls it “social dialogue, or tripartism” and says it’s “the way in which most modern progressive European countries would operate”. Precisely what it will appear and feel like aren’t nailed down and if it received off the bottom, it could be exhausting to restrict the variety of organisations that wish to take part, which may nudge it again to one thing extra paying homage to the blockbuster social partnership conferences. But for the union chief, it will knit collectively pay talks with an total agreed strategy or framework that additionally reached into budgetary coverage.

“The context for the public service pay talks would be influenced if there was a sense that there was going to be a concentrated effort over the coming weeks to try to come up with measures that would lessen the impact of the increased cost of living by taking steps that were going to be agreed and then dealt with as either part of the budget or part of separate Government decisions,” he says.

The concept additionally finds favour with Danny McCoy, chief govt of employers’ physique Ibec. “I think it should be explored,” he says. “In the absence of a framework, people are getting higher wages but are getting frustrated because they still can’t afford services.”

The Ibec chief govt says the previous social partnership mannequin was constructed on modest wage will increase, industrial peace and tax cuts. “That formula is not appropriate for the circumstances we’re in now. We need the first two but the tax cutting agenda is not appropriate, what people need is spending by the Government on what people need,” he says. A scenario the place employers pay into funds that in flip present for providers, slightly than chase inflation with wage will increase, is value contemplating, he says, including: “The most catastrophic mistake would be to try to index wage increases to price increase.”


The very first thing to find out, Callinan says, is whether or not a brand new framework is on the desk or do the upcoming talks on public pay exist in isolation. If it’s the latter, the knock-on impact is obvious for the union facet. “If it’s just a pay deal… there is more pressure on to provide greater pay increases if people’s cost of living hasn’t been lessened by other measures that have been taken,” he says.

Union officers imagine the Taoiseach is enthusiastic in regards to the concept and there may be no less than curiosity about it elsewhere in Government, with one senior supply open to exploring “a wider bargain involving changes to tax, reduced childcare costs, more like the national wage agreements of old”.

A wider deal would cowl the general public sector and far of the non-public sector with pay will increase “moderated by other Government actions such as tax reductions [or] reduced cost of living measures”, the identical supply affords – describing it as a “wider bargain”.

Michael McGrath, who will lead the Government facet in negotiations, secured Government approval to start talks however has been modest in his public pronouncements thus far. In April, he informed the Irish Examiner he needs an extension of the present deal and “can live without a deal” as nicely. “There is certainly a question to be answered as to whether this is an appropriate time to enter into a medium to long-term agreement when you see inflation at the level it’s at currently,” he informed the newspaper.

He emphasised on Friday that it “cannot simply fall to the pay issue to address the full spectrum of inflationary pressures”, noting the Government had different levers at its disposal. He anticipated additional modifications to revenue tax and social welfare charges within the funds in October, for instance, to cut back the burden folks confronted “so it doesn’t solely fall to the pay bill to address the inflationary pressures. But undoubtedly, it can and will play a role if we can reach an agreement over the period ahead.”

If the backdrop is just too turbulent for something however an extension, that might counsel a maximalist reordering of your entire structure for pay bargaining can be a bridge too far.

An extension to the present deal would in some ways be less complicated – narrowing the main focus to an easier discount of pay will increase for “productivity gains” sought by the Government. If that involves go, Callinan believes (maybe unsurprisingly) there is no such thing as a want so as to add to the productiveness parts already detailed within the present settlement, a lot of which stay to be accomplished.

Either method, he needs the Government to make clear the vary of its ambitions sooner slightly than later. “There needs to be an answer very quickly as to whether Government are interested in some sort of a broader social wage piece, and if they are, that needs to be discussed and concluded within a few weeks,” he says, arguing important progress must be made by the center of June: “The ball is in their court at the moment.”

In protecting with custom, he’s not sluggish to ramp up the rhetoric and the strain on the Government. “I can tell you this, I don’t think we’re going to be sitting around for the next few months in the hope or belief that something is going to happen,” he says, promising that within the absence of Government motion on value of dwelling, “we are going to have to make our own decisions” and “in that scenario, we’ll have to look at our options including how we campaign and mobilise on the issue explicitly.”


“We would look at how we would try to get our message across in the time-honoured way,” he says, promising: “We’re not going to be just patsies waiting for something to happen.”

Whether a broader shake-up or a naked bones deal is on the desk within the quick time period, there’s a rising sense that one thing extra basic should be completed to react to new pressures within the economic system and labour market. “The horse is running, it’s not as if we’ve opened the stable door,” says Danny McCoy. “It’s how to bring it under some sort of control.”

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